【禁聞】農村戶口更值錢?新土改沸沸揚揚

【新唐人2013年11月11日訊】一名重慶網友發帖說,「我在重慶,是農村戶口,我老婆在湖南,是非農村戶口,現在結婚後要落到我那裏,結果公安局說不能落農村戶口!」這位網友的抱怨引來上百位網友的熱烈討論。 下面請看報導。

2010年在浙江義烏發生了195名公務員戶口「非轉農」事件。當地民間所流傳的「義烏一個農村戶口價值百萬」的說法,其實說的是農村戶口所能帶來的土地利益價值百萬。

據大陸媒體報導,「逆城市化」主要源於土地利益。由於過去發展城鎮化、工業化以及「房地產化」,使得近年來土地大幅升值。為此,很多農民即便身在城市務工,也不願意從農村戶口變為城鎮戶口,因為變成城鎮戶口後就會失去土地,失去分享土地紅利的機會。

原中央黨校《學習時報》副編審鄧聿文表示,在一些發達地區特別像義烏這些地方,農民戶口確實比城市戶口更加值錢。因為農民有土地,金錢就建立在土地上。

原中央黨校《學習時報》副編審鄧聿文:「義烏這個地方本來就是土地稀少,如果政府要徵地,或者甚麼,就算是他不是按照所謂同地同價來算,它比當公務員拿兩個工資要高多了。為甚麼講城郊的農民一旦徵地他就發財了呢,就是因為那土地值錢嘛。」

但是目前中國農民沒有土地所有權,如果出售土地,只能賣給政府,而不能直接賣給開發商。北京思源社會科學研究中心總裁,80年代在國家體改委工作的曹思源表示,國家剝奪了農民土地所有權,讓農民一無所有,這是為甚麼農民窮困的原因。

北京思源社會科學研究中心總裁曹思源:「農村的土地應該是農民的,結果合作化以後變成集體的,然後集體以後又變成官僚的,現在到底不知道這個土地是誰的了,所以問題就複雜化了。」

土地改革在三中全會之前被炒得沸沸揚揚。《經濟學人》11月1號的文章呼籲中共給予農民對土地和房屋的全面所有權。長久以來,地方共產黨負責人通過徵用農民土地而後賣給開發商,來維持他們的財政和讓他們個人致富。補償不足和缺乏明確的土地所有權,是農民最大的抱怨。

鄧聿文:「因為現在,土地你只能賣給政府,政府就是二道販子,我等於是中間商,中間商我肯定壓你,你只能賣給我,你不可能賣給別人,我可以把你的土地價格壓低,然後我用高價出售給開發商。這中間賺的差價,為甚麼政府它樂於幹這個事?因為這中間差價巨大。」

鄧聿文認為,三中全會不會批准土地私有化,但是會批准同地同價的改革。所謂同地同價,就是出售土地不再需要通過政府這一中間環節,而直接賣給開發商,因此農民的土地出售跟國家的土地出售是同一個價格。

鄧聿文:「應該會通過,我個人認為通過的可能性很大。因為這樣的話,農民能賣地的話,一個是能把這個房價打下去,另外一個能讓農民富裕起來。」

雖然中共領導人習近平和李克強誓言改革,但是大陸地方黨政官員長期倚賴賣地的「土地財政」是不爭的事實,在許多地方政府仍債臺高築的情況下,「新土改」要改變現狀,大陸中央要如何化解地方官員的阻力?這是中共中央另一個棘手難題。

國土資源部土地勘測規劃院副總工程師鄒曉雲對《上海證券報》說,目前土地的供應和配置都存在嚴重問題,「土地制度的問題都很清楚,而且整個經濟的運作都與土地的供應模式密切相關,通脹問題、高房價問題也都與土地有關。」。他表示,目前各方對農村集體建設用地流轉存在分歧,這意味著改革的難度比較大,但是,改革的需求也很多。

接近國土資源部的人士向《上海證券報》表示,農地流轉是改革的重頭戲之一,但因為問題複雜,從改革的頂層設計來看,目前尚無定論。另一位接近國土資源部的人士表示,三中全會本身涉及土地改革的內容或許有限,但在改革的方向和思路上會給予闡明。

採訪編輯/秦雪 後製/李智遠

Will Upcoming Land Reform Make Rural Hukou More Valuable Than Urban?

A Chinese netizen says in a post,"I live in Chongqing
with a rural hukou (household registration).
My wife comes from Hunan and has an urban hukou.
After we married, my wife wanted to move her hukou to
my hometown, but the public bureau said her hukou
could not be changed to a rural one!"
His post has led hundreds of Chinese netizens to heated debate.
Let’s have a look at the report below.

In 2010, 195 government employees in Yiwu city,
Zhejiang province, secretly changed their hukou to rural ones
on the computer system.

There has been a local saying that
“any rural hukou in Yiwu is worth over a million yuan".
This indeed refers to the land value attached to
a rural hukous in Yiwu.

Mainland Chinese media say such “deurbanization" moves
are results of land values.
Urbanization, industrialization and over-construction of
real estates have greatly raised land prices in recent years.
Consequently, rural workers have become unwilling to move
their hukou into cities even if they work there.
The reason is, once their hukou become urban they will
automatically lose lands and therefore chances to benefit
from surging land prices.

Zheng Yuwen, former deputy editor of Central Party School
publication Study Times, says that the value of a rural hukou
can be much higher than that of an urban one
in developed regions such as Yiwu.
This is because rural residents have land, which itself
is worth a lot of money.

Zheng Yuwen, former deputy editor of Study Times
magazine:"In Yiwu the land resource is pretty scarce.
When local government expropriates farm lands for
construction, the compensation is much higher than
average income of governmental employees,

even if it is not calculated at the average market
land price of the region."

However, a problem is that currently rural Chinese residents
have no land ownership.
They are only allowed to sell lands to the government,
but not to developers.
Cao Siyuan, CEO of Beijing Siyuan Social Science Research
Center and a former member of the State Council
economic reform committee,

says that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has deprived
peasants of land ownership, which is almost all they have.
That is why Chinese peasants are so poor.

Cao Siyuan, Beijing Siyuan Social Science Research Center
CEO: “Peasants should own the lands in rural regions.
But through the movement of People’s Communes,
the ownership became collective, and then bureaucratic.
Now nobody exactly knows who has the ownership and
therefore the problem has become complicated."

The land reform issue was a hot topic before
the Third Plenary Session.
In a Nov. 1 article, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)
called on the CCP authorities to return full house
and land ownership to peasants.

For a long time, local party leaders have generated revenue
and gotten rich through taking land from peasants
and selling it to developers.

Insufficient compensation and unclear land ownership are
the top complaints from peasants.

Zheng Yuwen: “Right now, peasants can only sell lands
to the government.
So the government really plays the role of an intermediary.

As the middleman they will squeeze benefits for sure
because peasants cannot sell the lands to anyone else.
They can lowball the land price and then sell to developers
at a much higher price, making huge profits.
Why are local governments so active in doing this?
The answer is simply the huge profits.”

Zheng says the Third Plenary Session
will not approve private land ownership,
but will approve reform of “Same Region, Same Price".

The so-called principle of"Same Region, Same Price"
will allow peasants to bypass the “middlemen” that are
local governments and directly sell lands to developers.

This also allows peasants to sell their lands
at the same prices that the authorities do.

Zheng Yuwen:"I think there is a good chance it’ll be approved.

Because allowing peasants to sell lands will, for one thing,
lead to lower housing prices, and secondly,
it will increase rural household incomes."

Although the CCP leaders Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang made
their promise of carrying out reforms,
it is an undeniable fact that local party officials have
become accustomed to relying on land sales for revenue.
With the huge amounts of debts owed by many local
governments, how will the central government overcome
resistance from local officials to make real changes
with land reforms?
This is another big trouble for the party leaders.

Zou Xiaoyun is a deputy chief engineer of Land Surveying
and Planning Institute at the Ministry of Land and Resources.
Zou told Shanghai Security News that there are currently
serious land supply and allocation problems:
“The problems of the current land system are very clear.

More importantly, the land supply system is closely
related to the entire economy, as well as issues such as
inflation and high house prices."

Zou also revealed that there were still disagreements about
the transfer of collective-owned farm lands for construction.
This indicates that implementing reform is still difficult
despite the many demands for it.

A source related to the Ministry of Land and Resources told
Shanghai Security News that farm land transfer is a main
part of the reform plan.

However, top-level reform plans still come to no conclusive
point on this issue due to the complexity of the problems.
Another source revealed that the Third Plenary Session may
only touch land reform to a limited extent,
but will clarify the direction for future reform plans.

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