旅美「中國社會民主黨中央委員會」主持人 劉因全：「從江澤民開始我們知道，在江澤民當總書記以後，中國是全面腐敗，我們知道軍隊中有一些軍頭，他就是靠巴結江澤民上去的，是江家黨，江家軍，所以這些軍頭們一路得到提拔，得到重用，他們的貪污腐敗也得到江澤民的庇護、保護。這樣就造成整個軍隊的貪污腐敗，一發不可收! 」
採訪/李韻 編輯/周平 後製/黎安安
Global Military Corruption: China Scored “High-Risk"
Berlin-based Transparency International held
a press conference on January 29 in Taiwan.
Its latest global index on Government Defense
Anti-Corruption says that China’s army is combating against corruption,
but lacks oversight and a whistleblower system.
The anti-corruption index ranked China
as a high-risk country.
China has the largest active army in the world.
However, in the latest index on Government Defense
Anti-Corruption released by Transparency International (TI), China was ranked high-risk.
Mark Pyman, director of IT’s defense work in the UK,
said that China’s military does not allow the level of scrutiny required to ensure an anti-graft campaign is succeeding.
“It has very little oversight of a defense and armed forces
policy and no effective whistleblower system," Agence France-Presse reported.
What has caused the corruption in China’s army?
Political commentator Wu Fan: “China’s army, firstly,
is not a national defense force.
Rather, it serves the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
The CCP in itself is a leading corruption group in the world,
so naturally, the army under its leadership is not immune.
Especially those senior army officers, most of them are
princelings, or princelings’ parents, children of CCP veterans, or of CCP top-level officials.
These veterans and senior officials are corrupt,
how could their children and relatives be immune
when becoming army generals?”
Kevin Yeh, director of TI’s Taiwan Division, told the media
that Mainland China’s military is a closed system.
The military and the CCP have more power than
the executive branch of government.
And even worse, China has no an effective watchdog
agency to serve as anti-graft.
Under the existing mechanism, anti-graft is only an internal
self-control, and along with the army’s high opacity,
all these easily breed corruption, according to Kevin Yeh.
Wu Fan: “Second, China’s army is very enclosed.
It’s a law-free zone, only governed by CCP’s military
commission, so it’s a standalone force.
Each year, the military expenditure has soared,
the majority were pocketed by those military commission officials.
They’re much more corrupt than those officials
at local authorities and local Party committees."
Reportedly, the People’s Liberation Army
has 2.3 million personnel.
The CCP official data on defense spending in 2012
has increased by 11.2%, to 670 billion yuan.
Wu Fan: “After the first Iraq war, the CCP began
to pump capital into the military.
The annual growth in military expenditure exceeds 10%.
Most of their newly developed weapons are counterfeit,
copied or stolen technologies from other countries, with very few being self-developed.
It’ll take at least five to ten years before its newly
manufactured weapons act as real combat power."
Wu Fan adds that China’s army has weak fighting capacity.
This is because that army officers bought their posts,
money paves the way for their promotions.
Since taking office two months ago, Xi Jinping
has touted combating against corruption six times.
Meanwhile, the authorities repeatedly display domestically
produced weapons, indicating more possible national defense investments.
TI’s report states that China lacks private military
which means less competition and
susceptibility to corruption. And,
“the centralized structure of the Chinese state apparatus
caused the defense sector to be more prone to corruption.”
Liu Yinquan (Chair, Social Democratic Party of China):
“China’s nationwide corruption started during the reign of Jiang Zemin.
By currying favor with Jiang, some military chiefs got
promotions, who actually followed and worked for Jiang.
And Jiang protected their corruption,
this caused unchecked corruption in the entire army.”
Hong Kong’s Apple Daily comments that Xi Jinping raised
the public expectation on the authorities’ anti-corruption.
But under the one-party rule,
its power is impossible to be curbed.
The article remarks that after every anti-graft drive
staged in the past, corruption became even more severe.
That gave rise to more sharp clashes
between the regime and the public.
The latest Government Defense Anti-Corruption Index
scored a total of 82 countries.
Australia and Germany topped the list, some African nations
including Angola, Cameroon and Egypt were ranked lowest.