Ross Lee: I believe maybe 6 or 7 months, the number for arrest has gone up for marijuana related arrest while driving in a vehicle had gone up somewhere close to 70%.
Christy Brown: He told us he had been given marijuana by older students in middle school. And they got it from medical marijuana dispensaries.
Shao Yang: Not only that, some of them sell marijuana. Many of them get expelled because of the sales of marijuana on campus.
Hillary Ronen: 「I think by expanding the limits around schools and daycare centers, what we are saying is that there is something inherently dangerous or bad about these shops, I just really disagree with that premise. 」
Ellen Lee Zhou（社會工作者/2018年舊金山特別市長選舉候選人）：「他們是強姦民意。因為600街區以內的居民85％都是反對的，人們不希望孩子們接觸到毒品，不願見到毒品進入自己的社區，但是議會仍然通過了這項條例。」
Ellen Lee Zhou: 「That kills people’s voice because 85 percent of the people live nearby, within the 600 block, say no thank you. Stay away from our kids. Stay away from our residential area. But they still passed the regulation.」
Welcome to 《Zooming In》, I am Simone Gao. Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries, including America, have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis, a formal name for marijuana. But towards the end of the 20th century, decriminalization of the herb began. However, when California pioneered legalization of medical marijuana in 1996, few people thought it would lead to the legalization of recreational marijuana 20 years later. Now the legalization of recreational marijuana is old news, and “Safe Injection Center” are appearing that allow people to legally inject illicit drugs under supervision. What’s next? Is the U.S. entering a trap to legalizing all drugs, and is California leading the way? Let’s find out in this series of《 Zooming In》.
The Effect of Marijuana Legalization
May 16, 2018
abc news：「I-880 Fremont段發生一起慘烈車禍。5輛汽車報廢，3人死亡。肇事嫌疑人21歲的司機唐，傳因涉嫌吸大麻駕駛而被捕。」
「It was a devastating scene on interstate 880 on Fremont. Five mangled cars, three people dead and one driver under arrest. 21-year-old Dang Tran is in jail suspected of driving under the influence of marijuana. 」
This is not the only major traffic accident induced by marijuana a year into its legalization in California.
On the morning of December 2, 2017, a truck crashed into the San Francisco Bay Bridge toll station, killing the toll collector. The California Highway Patrol said they smelled marijuana and alcohol on the driver.
On Christmas eve the same year, California Highway Patrol officer Andrew Camilleri died when a car rear-ended him going over 100 miles per hour on I-880. The driver later admitted being under the influence of marijuana.
Ross Lee（ Officer/ California Highway Patrol/ San Jose Office ）：「I believe this is just in the Bay area, not statewide, but the number of arrest that we made you know the number of months I believe maybe 6 or 7 months, the number for arrest has gone up for marijuana related arrest while driving in a vehicle had gone up somewhere close to 70% which is serious, it’s a significant number. 」
It’s a common conception that marijuana makes a driver calm and relaxed. But what it actually does to the human body remains uncertain. According to the FDA, although chemicals in marijuana have led to two FDA-approved medications in pill form, the marijuana plant is not an FDA-approved medicine. Researchers haven't conducted enough large-scale clinical trials to show that benefits of the marijuana plant outweigh its risks to patients.
Dr. Christy Brown, a retired Mission College professor in Santa Clara, has experienced the risks first-hand. Her 26-year-old son started using the substance when he was 14.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院／退休教授）：「我發現他不是偶爾的使用大麻，他每天都在吸食，他上學之前吸食而我全然不知。在他沒有駕照之前我接他放學，他看上去似乎一切正常，我問他課堂上學習了什麼，他想不起來。幾年之前我才發現了，他告訴我他上課之前用了大麻，所以他上在課堂上無法真正集中注意力。他不得不打電話問他的朋友家庭作業的內容。作為一名老師，我總是努力想幫助他解決他的作業難題，可是我發現他完全不能集中精力在作業上，他無法專注。」
Dr. Christy Brown:「 I found out he wasn’t using it every once in a while, he was using it everyday. He was using it before he went to school and I didn’t know that. He would appear to be like ok, but when I go pick him up at school, this is before he got his driver’s license. I would say what did you do in your class, he couldn’t remember. And I found out a couple of years later, he told me he would use it before class, and he wasn’t really paying attention in class. And he would have to call his friends to know what his assignment was for homework. So I am a teacher and I basically trying to help him with his assignment when he had problems, I noticed he wouldn’t have any focus on his assignment. He couldn’t keep his attention. 」
The symptoms Dr. Brown describes can be explained scientifically. Dr. Evelyn Li, a cardiologist at the Asian Medical Clinic, showed us the difference between a normal brain and a substance-impaired brain.
Dr. Evelyn Li.mov（李醫師）：「這是一個正常大腦的俯視圖，這是仰視圖，好像從下往上觀察人體。你會發現，如果人攝入酒精，大腦中就會有小洞出現，大腦中的小洞表明那些細胞死了，失活了，且不能再恢復。 這是正常的大腦，這裡我們沒有發現小洞。你看，這是使用了三年可卡因的大腦，它有很多小洞，你能看到很多小洞。這是使用止疼藥的大腦，你能發現一些小洞。這是吸食大麻的大腦，有非常多的小洞，大麻導致很多小洞。這是年僅十六歲的使用了兩年大麻的大腦，裡面很多細胞已經死了，不錯，是死了。它主要作用於額葉和海馬體，額葉控制人的創造力和社交能力，而海馬體和人的記憶力相關。」
Dr. Evelyn Li.mov：「This is a normal brain, shooting from the top, and this is from the bottom to the top. As if looking at the human being from the bottom to the top. As you can see, if you drink alcohol you started to have holes in the brain. Holes in the brain means those cells are dead. Dead, no longer alive. You see holes in the brain. Like, this is normal, you see no holes here. You see a lot of holes here for people just use 3 years of cocaine. You see a lot of holes here. And this is mefenamic. Ok, you got holes here. And this is marijuana. You see a lot of holes. A lot of holes with marijuana. This is for two years, age of 16. There are a lot of cells that are dead. Yeah, they are dead. What it does is that it affect the frontal lobe and hippocampus. The frontal lobe is where people use it for creativities and social interactions. The hippocampus is for memory. 」
As of April 2018, four months since California began issuing temporary state licenses to cannabis operators, there are nearly 6000 licensed cannabis businesses in the state. California is the first state in the U.S. to legalize recreational marijuana use.
Coming up, all licensed retailers and individuals are only permitted to sell cannabis to adults 21 and older, but rampant marijuana use is present on middle school and high school campuses. Stay tuned to find out how this happened.
Rampant Marijuana use on middle school and high school campuses.
Dr. Brown has two sons. The older one grew up in Texas. He graduated Magna Cum Laude high school with honors and got a law degree from the Rice University. He now enjoys a successful career as a diplomat. She never expected that her younger son, born and raised in California, would take a drastically different path.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院/退休教授）：「他告訴我們他在中學裡，有學長給他大麻。他們從醫用大麻商店得到的大麻。」
Dr. Christy Brown:「 He told us he had been given Marijuana by older students in middle school. And they got it from medical marijuana dispensaries. 」
Medical marijuana had long been legalized in California by the time Dr. Brown’s son started using it. But adults from 18-21 can only get medical marijuana through their primary caregiver -- theoretically.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院/退休教授）：「他們去找醫生，可能會說，我睡不著覺，那裡疼，醫生也沒辦法測試那些。醫生也不是他們常用的醫生，而是他們稱呼為『給藥醫生』，所以基本上每個人都知道這是騙人的。」
「They went to a doctor and they would say, I can’t sleep or I have some pain and the doctor can’t really test for that. And it is not their regular doctor, it was what they call pot doctor, so basically everybody knew this is a kind of scam. 」
It is a scam that doesn’t seem to bother most people. After all, marijuana is generally perceived as non-harmful herb that makes you feel good.
Medical Marijuana is non-addictive and non-habit forming. Medical relieve can be administered instantaneously. Side effects could include euphoria, a sense of well-being, love and extreme happiness……
According to the federally funded “Monitoring the Future” study, among all grades, perceptions of harm and disapproval of marijuana use has continued to decrease over the past 20 years.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院/退休教授）：「因為所有別的孩子都在這麽做，他就以為它沒問題，所以整個的文化就是這麼做沒事，大麻無害，你可以這麼做。反正很快大麻就合法化了，這是另一個他會用的藉口。無害、我不會死、我也不會過量，他經常給我這些藉口。」
Christy Brown: 「Because all the other kids were doing it, he thought he didn’t have a problem. He could hide, with what other kids did, not doing it, you know, not as extreme. so this whole culture of you know, it is ok, marijuana is not harmful, you know, you can do these things, it is going to be legal soon anyway, that’s the other thing he would say. It is not harmful, I can’t die, I can’t overdose. Those kind of things, he used to give me this kind of reasons why it was ok for him to do it. 」
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana use can lead to problems, which takes the form of addiction in severe cases. 30 percent of those who use marijuana may have some degree of marijuana use disorder. People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults. Dr. Brown’s son falls into this category. He got increasingly addicted to marijuana in his high school years when he used it multiple times a day. He progressed to running away from home to avoid treatment and getting arrested for bringing marijuana to school. By the time he was approaching 18, Dr. Brown had to face a bigger challenge.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院/退休教授）：「我們告訴他，在加州當你18歲的時候，你可以得到一個醫用大麻卡，你可以使用醫用大麻。在大麻合法化之前就是這樣，他的很多朋友都在談論要得到那種卡，這樣他們就能用大麻來消遣。」
Christy Brown: 「We told him, when you get to be 18 in California, you can get a medical marijuana card, you can use medical marijuana. This was true before legalization. A lot of his friends were talking about getting those cards so they could use marijuana recreationally. 」
When Dr. Brown’s son turned 18, she realized that reality was worse than what she originally feared.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院/退休教授）：「我發現他其實在這些大麻商店閒逛，開始為加工大麻的人工作。他開始通過製作大麻油賺錢。這是非常危險的事情，因為要使用丁烷。有很多起大麻油爆炸的事件，房子燒毀人死掉。還有製作大麻油在加州是違法的。」
Christy Brown:「 I found out that he was actually hanging out at these marijuana dispensaries started working for someone who was brewing marijuana. He started making money by making hash oil. It is a very dangerous thing because you have to use butane. And there are a lot of hash oil explosions where houses have been burned down, people have been killed. And it actually become illegal in California. 」
On November 8, 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in California. Marijuana dispensaries sprawled in metropolitan areas in Southern and Northern California. Schools quickly felt their presence.
Fremont聯合學區，是北加州的明星學區。學區由42個學校組成，有近35000的學生至高中階段的學生。學區2016年有14位國家優秀學者獲得者，11所加州金帶學校。自2016年年底，學區委員Yang Shao 注意到了明顯的變化。
The Fremont Unified School District is one of Northern California’s star districts. It is made up of 42 schools serving nearly 35,000 students in grades K-12. It had 14 National Merit Scholars and 11 California Gold Ribbon Schools in 2016. Since late 2016, the District Councilor Yang Shao saw a distinct change.
Yang Shao（加州弗里蒙學區委員）：「娛樂用大麻在兩年前合法化之後，學區開始收集在校園內濫用大麻的數據。數字顯示在過去3年至少有平均12%的增長， 這意味著越來越多的學生在校園內使用大麻。不僅如此， 有的人還販賣大麻，他們中很多人因為在校園販售大麻被開除了。
Shao Yang (Fremont District Councilor):「 After the recreational marijuana was legalized two years ago, the school district has been collecting data on how rampant the marijuana abuse is on our campuses. The data shows there has been at least 12 percent increase on average for the last three years which indicates more and more students are using marijuana on campuses. Not only that, some of them sell marijuana. Many of them get expelled because of the sales of marijuana on campus. 」
According to Marijuana Business Daily, as of July 2018, an estimated 70% of cities and counties in California had actually prohibited cannabis companies of any stripe from setting up shop in their jurisdictions. But major metropolitan areas are exceptions. On November 28, 2017, at the San Francisco Board of Supervisors meeting, Katy Tang tried three times by supervisor Katy Tang to impose a buffer zone for Marijuana dispensaries, drug dispensaries and daycares were turned down. They were all turned down.
Katy Tang （Member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors）：「So the first one is the thousand-foot buffer zone, and it includes a daycare center as defined by the California health and safety code. 」
London Breed（舊金山市議會議長）: 「對於這個修正案沒有什麼特別的問題了。請唱票。」
London Breed（President of San Francisco Board of Supervisors）: 「No particular questions about this amendment, madam clerk, on this item. Please call the roll. 」
Supervisor Breed——no，Supervisor Cohen—— no，supervisor Farrel——no，
supervisor Fewer—— No，Supervisor Kim——aye，Supervisor Peskin—— no，
supervisor Ronen——no， supervisor Safai——aye，supervisor Shih—— no，
supervisor Tang—— aye， supervisor Yee——aye.
There are 7 nos and 4 ayes, with supervisor Breed, Cohen, Farrell, Fewer, Peskin, Ronen, Shihi in a descent. The amendment fails.
「Given that the previous motion failed, I just want to put it back to 1000-foot radius without daycare centers, which is what we have right now. 」
There are 5 ayes and 6 noes …... The motion fails.
Katy Tang: Okay, thank you. I promise this would be the last one on the buffer zone. Okay, so my next one would be 600-foot buffer centers with daycare centers.
There are 5 ayes and 7 nos ……the amendment fails.
Supervisor Tang’s motions were not only turned down. Her colleagues passionately disagreed with them.
Hillary Ronen（Member of San Francisco Board of Supervisor）：「I think by expanding the limits around schools and daycare centers, what we are saying is that there is something inherently dangerous or bad about these shops, I just really disagree with that premise. I actually think that the war on drugs is what has been dangerous for our society. There are documented evidence, plenty of it showing that where you make drugs legal and regulate them, and prevent kids to get access to them, and allow people who are already addicted to substances, not to penalize those individuals, they use less drugs and get better. That neighborhood get after. In Portugal where all drugs are legal, they have seen the society transformed and crime go down. 」
在那次會議上，議員羅南（Ronen）的動議是取消對大麻藥房之間距離的所有限制。然而，Ellen Lee Zhou，社會工作者，2018年舊金山特別市長選舉候選人，表示羅南的做法並不代表民意。
「 At that meeting, supervisor Ronen’s motion to remove any restrictions on the distance between cannabis dispensaries was passed. However, Ellen Lee Zhou, social worker and 2018 candidate for San Francisco special mayoral election, said Ronen does not represent the community’s real voice.」
Ellen Lee Zhou（社會工作者/2018年舊金山特別市長選舉候選人）：「我曾經出席過很多次聽證會。我記得很清楚。我們和他們講，我們不想在3015 San Bruno旁邊有一個大麻商店，因為在那兒旁邊有一個幼兒園和托兒所。你知道他們說什麼嗎？他們說有必要在那兒建一個大麻商店。他們是強奸民意，因為600街區以內的居民，85%都是反對的。人們不希望孩子們接觸到毒品，不願見到毒品進入自己的社區。但是議會仍然通過了這項條例，允許大麻商店開在托兒所旁邊。」
Ellen Lee Zhou:「 I was in many of the public hearings. I remember very clearly in my head. We said to them, we do not want a cannabis store next to 3015 San Bruno because there is a preschool and a daycare right next to that proposed location. You know what they say? They said it is necessary to have a cannabis store there. That kills people’s voice because 85 percent of the people live nearby, within the 600 block, say no thank you. Stay away from our kids. Stay away from our residential area. But they still passed the regulation. They allow them to have the cannabis store next to the daycare. 」
市長選舉之前，根據舊金山監察委員會的政治獻金報告，舊金山市議員Mark Farrell和議長London Breed，後者被選為舊金山市長，分別從當地的大麻業者那裡獲得了超過5萬美元的政治獻金。現任市議員們總共從舊金山的大麻產業業主、僱員、說客、和相關公司獲得至少153,000美元。
Before the mayoral election, according to political contributions reported to the San Francisco Ethics Commission, San Francisco supervisor Mark Farrell and Board of Supervisors president London Breed, who was later elected mayor of the city, have received more than $50,000 each in reported political contributions from the local cannabis industry. In total, the members of the current Board of Supervisors received at least $153,000 from owners, employees, lobbyists and firms associated with the cannabis industry in San Francisco.
Coming up, what will legalization of recreational marijuana lead to?
After Legalizing Recreational Marijuana
Dr. Brown’s son eventually moved on to more serious drugs when he was a freshman in college. His family tried their best to help him control the addiction. He could control it for a while, but he always relapsed. At the end of each cycle he would be in an even worse situation.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院／退休教授）：「他最終不得不輟學，這給了他很大的震撼，因為他感到自己沈淪下去了。他想上大學，他的所有同學們都在上大學，他幾乎對生活絕望了。我們發現他在濫用阿片類藥物、吸食海洛因、靜脈註射海洛因，他進大學後不久，就成了一個濫用多種毒品的徹底的癮君子。」
「 What I experienced with this drug addiction was that the person tried to control it, we control it for a while and then we take over again. So it’s kind of like a cycle. And every time at the end of the cycle, he will be kind of like a downward spiral. So when he had to withdraw from school, that was a big shock for him, because that was his status in life and he was going to college and all these other friends are still in college. And he just kind of went crazy. We found out he was also using opioid pills. And we found out he started to use heroin, and he started to inject heroin. So it is very quick to going to college and going to all these drugs and become a full-blown heroin addict. 」
He ended up also developing drug-induced psychosis and was sent to mental health institutions for a while. After being arrested for driving under the influence, his mother discovered a surprising fact about him.
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院／退休教授）：「我為他擔心。我請了律師來查這件事情。我事先告訴律師，兒子有精神疾患，但是律師見了他之後卻說他沒問題。我感到懷疑，我們跑去見了他，當時他已經抽了4個月的醫用大麻，已經出現了精神病的症候。但是他那次入獄後，因為無法在獄中抽大麻，所以僅僅過了24小時神智就恢復了正常。」
「I was really worried and I hired a lawyer to find out what was going to go on. The lawyer went to see him and I told the lawyer he is mentally ill and he is psychotic. And the lawyer went and he said to me, there is nothing wrong with your son, he is ok. I said, really? We went to see him and he has been taking this medical marijuana for 4 months and exhibiting this signs of psychosis. He went to the jail and he was fine after 24 hours for not using marijuana, he was himself basically. 」
Dr. Christy Brown（教會學院／退休教授）：「有人說這是一種病，應該由醫務人員而不是執法部門來處理。但這種說法其實是不對，因為心理醫生沒辦法幫他，他是完全的理智不清。某些情況下，當吸毒者深度上癮，完全喪失理智的情況下，就必須由執法部門來解決問題。」
「 I talked to the psychiatrist when he was in jail and he said, don’t bail him out, he is out of control. So when they tell you that this is a disease, and it should not be law enforcement that deal with people, and it should just be the health provider to deal with people, it is really not going to work because the psychiatrist couldn’t deal with him. He is too out of control. There are some cases where the only people who are going to be able to deal with the person who is out of control addicted situation is law enforcement, unfortunately. 」
Between law enforcement and the persistent efforts of his family, Dr. Brown’s son was able to finally stop using drugs and graduate from college. Dr. Brown, however, is aware that the battle is not over. Anytime he is exposed to a drug accessible environment, he is in danger of relapsing.
On August 21, 2018, the California State Senate passed a measure that would authorize San Francisco to open a facility for injecting illegal drugs -- the first of its kind in the nation. 8 days later, a mock injection center was open. One of the critiques of the injection center is that the law enforcement would potentially no longer be able to arrest people who possess drugs because they could simply say they are on their way to the “safe injection center.” For the Brown family, it means they will have one more thing to watch out for.
蕭茗（Host/Simone Gao）：布朗博士一生都是民主黨人。她曾投票支持醫用大麻合法化，因為她覺得大麻是治療癌症和其它疾患的必需品。 當她的學生告訴她，有高中生賣大麻給低年級同學的時候，她還不相信。直到有一天她兒子成了癮君子。在她看來，毒品問題超越黨派政治，是個常識性的問題。她對我說，如果她能事先了解到大麻的危害，她就不會投票支持醫用大麻合法化。目前加州可能很快就會有許多毒品注射中心開張。輿論究竟會從執政理念的角度，還是會從維護公理的角度去看待這個問題？請看我們的下期節目——加州會走向毒品全面合法化嗎？謝謝收看《世事關心》。我是蕭茗。我們下週再見。
Dr. Brown is a lifelong Democrat, and she still is. She voted for legalizing medical marijuana, believing the herb is a necessary treatment for a small group of terminal disease patients. When her students told her high schoolers were selling marijuana to younger kids, she didn’t believe them until her own son became a victim. To her, drug policy is not a partisan issue, but a common-sense issue. She told me, if she knew all the facts that were hidden about marijuana, she would never have voted for legalizing medical marijuana. Now California is likely to see a boom of injection centers in the near future. Will the debate over it be about two contrasting governing philosophies, or does it really come down to basic common sense? Let’s find out in Part two of this series: Is California Pioneering Legalization of All Drugs? Thanks for watching 《Zooming In》. I am Simone Gao. See you next time.
Producer：Simone Gao David Zhang
Reporter: David Zhang Ning Han
Editors： Bonnie Yu Julian Kuo
Cameraman: York Du Teddy Lin Ken Li
Narrator: Rich Crankshaw
Interview Overdub: Kacey Cox
Transcription: Jess Beatty
Translation：Greg Yang Juan Li Xiaofeng Zhang
Special Effects：Harrison Sun
Assistant producer：Yolanda Yao Bin Tang Merry Jiang
Host accessories are sponsored by Yun Boutique
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