【禁闻】大陆研究报告揭开地方政府爱强拆秘密

【新唐人2014年04月17日讯】中国大陆有媒体和研究机构,日前根据当局数据,计算出中国23个省份的“土地财政依赖度”,发现超8成地方政府将土地出让收入,作为地方债务偿还的主要渠道。分析指出,中国的政府运行成本过高,地方政府又养著庞大的党、政、军,如果没有土地财政做支撑,这些政府早就停摆了。

4月14号,《中国经济周刊》、“中国经济研究院”联合发布的《中国23个省份土地财政依赖度排名报告》中,浙江省以66.27%排名第一﹔天津排名第二,依赖度64.56%。

也就是说,浙江、天津两地政府负有偿还责任的债务,有2/3的份额要靠卖地来偿还。

根据中共审计署公布,截至2012年底,中国11个省级、316个市级、1,396个县级政府,承诺以土地出让收入偿还的债务余额为3万4,865亿 2,400万元。

审计署的这一调查,是针对中国391个市、2,778个县进行的。在被审计调查的市级政府中,承诺以土地收入来还债的高达81%,县级政府也超过50%。

中国金融智库研究员巩胜利向《新唐人》表示,中国各级省、市、县级政府的债务,都要靠土地财政来偿还,充分表明地方政府对土地财政依赖的普遍性,但地方政府靠卖地还债已不可持续。

中国金融智库研究员巩胜利:“全世界都知道,土地买卖不能重复进行,你不能今天卖了这块地,明天再卖,后天再卖,因为土地的资源都是稀有资源。改革开放35年,可以这么说,像广东、沿海的地区﹕广东、浙江、福建、上海、山东,土地几乎没有空地了,都被开发用尽了。”

巩胜利指出,中国的政府运行成本太高,在中国财政分成方面,中央政府占财政总归数据的60%以上。

巩胜利:“而地方政府,包括省、地级市、县、镇、乡、乡镇,最低一层的叫村民委员会,只享用了政府财政划分的比例大概40%,你想想看,它地方政府又养了党、政、军,比如共产党的各级机构,还有政府的各级机构,他钱从哪里来,没有土地这些政府早就停摆了。”

有大陆网民感叹, 怪不得各个地方政府疯狂的征地拆迁,他们不惜杀人放火,来抢老百姓的房屋土地!

原《陕西电视台》记者马晓明指出,土地财政不但给中国经济带来了一系列的不利影响,同时,滋生出的风险也转嫁到老百姓身上,形成了一个从中央到地方,对老百姓土地进行掠夺的团伙。

原《陕西电视台》记者马晓明:“从我十几年关注土地问题的情况,我认为它就是赤裸裸的土地掠夺,就是政府,党、政官员对土地的掠夺,就是自改革开放以后到现在,所形成的这种大规模的、普遍的、持久的对人民土地的掠夺。”

马晓明说,这种掠夺,最早是由中共前领导人邓小平,以及中央的一些官员,和他们的子女、亲属,以及身边的工作人员,在各地圈占土地、卖土地开始的。

马晓明:“以后这个风就从中央扩展到省、市、区、县、街道办事处,直到现在,到了村干部这一级,实际上村干部他不可能去动用任何一寸土地,他必须要有政府的批准,或者政府官员,上级官员默许。所以它整个形成了从中央到地方,一直到村的这样一个庞大的掠夺土地,侵害人民基本权力的这样一个强盗团伙。”

近年来,大陆各地不断发生因强征土地、强拆房屋,所引发的大规模官民冲突事件,许多抗议民众甚至用自焚、跳楼等自残手段,来维护自身的权益。在中国的群体性抗争中,60%到70%是与房屋拆迁、征地有关。

采访编辑/李韵 后制/陈建铭

China’s Local Regimes: 80% Rely On Land Selling To Repay Debts

Chinese media and research institutes
have used official data to show that 23 local
provinces financially depend on the land.

The data shows that 80% of local regimes
sell land as a major channel for repaying debts.
Analysts say that the Chinese
regime has high operating costs.
Each local regime has to take care of large groups of
Communist Party members, and local army divisions.
Without revenue from selling land to
support the regime, it may collapse.

On April 14, China Economic Weekly and the China
Economic Research Institute jointly issued a report.
It is the assessment of the financial dependency
of 23 provincial governments on land.
Zhejiang Province has a 66.27% dependency on
land for revenue, and is ranked as the top on the list.
Tianjin is ranked second, with a 64.56% dependency rate.

In another words, 67% of local debt repayments
in Zhejiang and Tianjin depend on land selling.

The China Statistic Bureau announced that by
the end of 2012, 11 provincial-level, 316 city-level
and 1,396 county-level regimes, committed to
repay debts of 3.4 trillion yuan by selling land.

The survey covered 391 cities and 2,778 counties.

81% of city-level regimes and 50% of county-level regimes
promised that they would repay debts by selling their land.

Gong Shenlin, a researcher of China Financial
Think Tank spoke to NTD Television.
This indicates that the income of local regimes
rely on selling land to repay a lot of debts.
However, this reliance is not a long-term solution.

Gong Shengli: “The world knows that land
selling cannot continue as a long-term strategy.
You can sell this piece of land today and another
piece tomorrow, but land is a limited resource.
China’s policy of opening up was 35 years ago.
Places such as in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shanghai
and Shandong, almost have no land available for sell.
Land development has used it all up."

Gong Shengli says that in China, it is very
high cost to operate the regime itself.
The central regime always costs
more than 60% of revenues.

Gong Shengli: “Local regimes, including the provincial-level,
city-level and even lowest level regimes use 40% of revenue.
Think about it; local regimes pay the
bills for Communist Party and Army.
For example, where does each level of the
party and local regime’s money come from?
Without the land, these regimes would collapse earlier."

Chinese netizens say that it is no wonder
that each level of the regime is so forceful
in seizing land and demolition housing.

They don’t mind killing people or setting buildings
on fire, in order to seize civilians’ houses and land.

Ma Xiaoming, a former journalist of Sha’anxi
Television, says that land selling not only
has a negative impact on China’s economy.

It also transfers risks to it’s civilians.

By this way, from the central to local
regimes, it has gather to grab land.

Ma Xiaoming: “From my observation
on land issues over the last ten years,
I think the regime has openly seized land.

The regime, the party and officials plunder land.
Ever since economic policies opened up,
they have formed massive, widespread
and persistent plundering of people’s land."

Ma Xiaoming says that this plundering started
from Deng Xiaoping and central officials, as
well as their children, relatives and their staff.

They started seizing and selling land.

Ma Xiaoming: “Later, the habit spread to each province.
It spread to each city, county and
district, until it reached the village level.
Actually village cadres cannot touch any piece of
land, as they must have their local regime’s approval.
Or they need governmental official’s
and supreme official’s permission.
They formed a mafia-style group, from central
to local regimes and villages, to plunder
the land, breaching people’s basic rights."

In recent years, massive clashes between officials
and citizens have taken place in many cities.
This is because of land seizure and forced demolition.

Many people protest by self-immolation, or jumping
off their buildings, in order to maintain their rights.
60-70% of protests are related to
house demolition and land seizures.

Interview & Edit/Li Yun Post-Production/Chen Jianming

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