在2012年，英國《路透社》就根據「全球金融誠信」(Global Financial Integrity)的報告指出，過去十年流出中國的非法資金高達3.8萬億美元，摺合人民幣20多萬億。今年初，「國際調查記者同盟」發佈的大陸和香港離岸投資調查報告也揭示，自2000年以來，有1萬億到4萬億美元的資產從大陸流出。
採訪/陳漢 編輯/宋風 後製/周天
The Challenges in Expanding Anti-Corruption Overseas
This year, the CCP started the“Hunting Foxes 2014” campaign
and expanded the anti-corruption movement overseas.
At the APEC summit in Beijing, world leaders discussed how
to calibrate on international anti-corruption and
published a declaration on anti-corruption as well.
What price has the CCP to pay and what challenges has it to face
when expanding anti-corruption overseas?
Please read the report below.
At the Summit , the CCP representatives also discussed how
to carry out anti-corruption via international collaboration.
A joint “Declaration on Anti-Corruption” was agreed so that
corrupt officials who fled abroad can be chased more effectively.
However, as disclosed by VoA (Voice of America),
in order to trace back the huge amount of money
that corrupt Chinese officials took overseas, sometimes
the party has to agree to share the pie with the country
that assists in the process.
Wong Yuk-man, Member of Hong Kong Legislative Council,
published an article in Hong Kong “The Sun Daily News” Nov 8.
In it he mentions, sometimes the country, like the U.S.,
that greatly assists in tracing corrupt officials can receive
50 to 80% of the profit. Even the country that offers
“relatively great assistance” can receive 40 to 50%.
Xie Tian, University of South Carolina, Aiken Business School,
said that the party needs to reimburse other countries
for the cost in manpower and physical resources
when there is no extradition treaty between them.
It’s like how one has to pay collection companies in the West.
Xie Tian:“The third country is normally paid a reasonable
amount for international investigation and extradition.
However, China hasn’t set up extradition treaties
with most of the countries.”
“The Sun Daily News” pointed out that not only is the party
paying a huge price to trace corrupt officials abroad
but it’s against the principle of
“embezzled public funds needs to be fully refunded”
from “UN Convention against Corruption”.
As disclosed by China Central Bank in 2011,
more than 800 billion Chinese yuan flew out of China when corrupt officials fled overseas.
In actuality, the amount of assets the party’s corrupt officials
took with them are worth far more than 800 billion.
In 2012, based on the reports of “Global Financial Integrity”,
Reuter reported that in the past 10 years as much as
3,800 billion U.S. dollars, or 20,000 billion Chinese yuan,
illegally flew out of China.
Xie Tian said most of the party officials own overseas property.
Their children and spouses live in the U.S. or other western countries.
Therefore, the party can only selectively perform anti-corruption
and it’s impossible to be thorough.
Xie Tian: “The root problem is that anti-corruption is not part
of the national policies. Actually, the party itself is the root cause
of the corruption. Therefore, the party’s anti-corruption
is not reasonable, legal or upright.
It’s nothing but a tool used in faction struggles.
It’s not something they dare to put on the table.”
Xie Tie also points out that, if the party is really fighting against
corruption, it is actually fighting against itself.
The party itself will collapse because of this.
This is not something that they can bear.
That’s also the reason why the party is not willing to share
common resources with democratic countries and achieve international agreements on anti-corruption.
The corrupt officials prefer the U.S., Canada and Australia
as their safe harbors because not only don’t these countries
have extradition treaties with China, but the legislative systems
in these countries are obstacles for the party to track them down.
For example, Lai Changxing, former founder of Yuanhua Group,
was extradited from Canada in 2011.
But, the extradition proceedings lasted 12 years.
The party also had to promise not to sentence Lai to death.
In 2002, the party extradited Yu Zhendong,
former M D. of Kaiping Branch of Bank of China, Guangdong.
Though Yu was charged with illegal embezzlement of
0.485 billion U.S. dollars, the U.S. government only agreed the extradition if he wouldn’t be tortured or sentenced to death.
In addition, political factors are also obstacles for the party
to carry out anti-corruption overseas.
Yang Hengjun, former party diplomat and current member of
Washington Atlantic Council, explained to Voice of America
that most officials that fled overseas carry with them
confidential documents. They might disclose party “secrets”
to western countries. If they were hunted down,
they would declare they are “politically persecuted”,
which puts western governments in a dilemma.
In this way, those “foxes” that fled overseas are even harder
to catch, compared to the “tigers” and “flies”.
It’s not an easy job for the party to track “overseas foxes” down.
Interview/ChenHan Edit/SongFeng Post-Production/ZhouTian