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【禁闻】北大教授建议〝红会〞脱掉乌纱帽

纽约时间: 2013-04-26 03:36 PM 
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【新唐人2013年04月27日讯】这次四川雅安芦山大地震,再一次把〝中国红十字会〞推向风口浪尖。地震发生第二天,社会各界开始捐赠。但是让〝中国红十字会〞万万没有想到的是,当天民间公益机构〝壹基金〞收到几千万善款,而〝红十字会〞仅仅募集到三万多元。而且在它的官方微博上,还收到了无数个〝滚〞字跟贴。〝北京大学〞经济学教授陈浩武建议,〝红十字会〞必须退出国家行政系统。
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陈浩武在博客中写道,一个官办的,依附于权力的、傲慢的、贪腐的、缺乏同情心的慈善机构,招人唾弃是必然的结果。虽然〝红十字会〞也在努力抓住这次救灾机会改变形象,包括负责人赵白鸽赶赴地震灾区第一线。但是〝郭美美事件〞对中国民众伤害之深,〝红会〞过去形象之烂,恐怕是〝红会〞通过自救难以恢复的。

陈浩武认为,应当改造〝红十字会〞。他提出三条建议,包括,〝红会〞必须退出国家行政系统,退出国家财政预算系统,而成为一个真正独立的民间NGO组织。

据了解,〝中国红十字总会〞由中国国务院领导。

相较之下,欧美各国的〝红十字会〞虽然也有半官方组织的色彩,但运作上基本独立于政府,成员也不靠纳税人养活,更重要的是,它的公信力基础是自下而上,以志愿者为主的救援结构,以及透明、公开、接受监督与约束的运作机制。

陈浩武建议,〝新的中国红十字会〞可以从中国和国际社会,吸收一批有威望的社会学家、法学家、经济学家、伦理学家、知名NGO负责人等等,组成〝中国红十字会委员会〞,广泛吸收民众智慧。

而〝北京外国语大学〞国际传播研究中心主任乔木指出,在国际上,〝红十字会〞是一个非政府组织,但在中国的运作,工作人员是官员身份,有编制、有级别。

北京外国语大学副教授乔木:〝这个时候,民众的捐款也罢,最后都汇到政府的账上。你不知道他到底是政府的拨款,还是民众的捐款。实际上它是藉红十字会这个标牌,在跟不同行业组织做一些授权的募捐行动。可能会有一部分进入最终的慈善,但是也可能有相当大的一部分流向了商业用途。这是最让人诟病的。〞

乔木认为,〝中国红会〞信誉低下,跟〝政府公信力〞丧失紧密相连。

乔木:〝它现在就是官、企不分。你到底是个企业,还是政府民政部门?再一个就是不透明。它可以藉口你这是一个政府行为或者是公共政策,而不是一个慈善或者福利性的东西。第三,人员的身份也很难定位。它又是运动员,又是裁判员。而且全国大大小小的慈善机构都跟它有千丝万缕的联系,而好多完全来自民间的钱都流向它的腰包。〞

此外,乔木指出,〝中国红会〞跟国际合作的时候,身份不对等。因为别的国家的〝红十字会〞是民间的非营利机构,在中国却是政府机构。

而陈浩武在博客中写道,中国现在是唯一一个没有加入〝国际红十字会〞的国家。

不过也有分析人士认为,〝中国红会不是国际红会成员国〞的说法不妥当,因为在1952年7月,〝第18届国际红十字大会〞承认:〝中国红十字会是中国惟一合法的全国性红十字会〞。

据了解,〝红十字国际委员会〞,是1863年2月创立于日内瓦的国际人道主义组织,是一个独立、中立的,为战争和武装暴力的受害者,提供人道保护和援助的国际机构。

陈浩武推荐让中共的〝第一夫人彭丽媛〞来担任〝红会领导人〞。但是乔木认为,习近平的夫人并不一定是最好的人选,因为她本身的官方背景太明显,她不但是第一夫人,而且她本身也是军队体制内的人。


Should The Chinese Red Cross Continue to Exit?

Once again, the Ya'an-Lushan earthquake has placed the Chinese Red Cross at the forefront of discussions.

The day after the earthquake, various organizations started to make donations.
The charitable organization Foundation One received tens of millions of yuan within one day.

This compares to 30,000 yuan raised by the Chinese Red Cross.
The Chinese Red Cross official website has also received countless “get lost” posts.
Chen Haowu, professor of economics at Peking University, suggests that the Chinese Red Cross must withdraw from the state administrative system.

Chen Haowu commented in a blog.
Chen thinks it is understandable that a state-run charity,
which is attached to power, arrogance, corruption, and lack of compassion, will not be welcome by anyone.

The Chinese Red Cross did try to take this opportunity to improve its image, such as Director Zhao Beigo immediately visiting the quake disaster areas.
However, the Guo Meimei incident has deeply hurt people, and it's image is irreparable.
Chen Haowu believes that the Chinese Red Cross should be modified.
He suggests that it withdraws from the state administrative system and state budget system.
It should become a truly independent NGO organization.

It is understood that the Chinese Red Cross is under the control of the State Council.

The Red Cross in Europe and the U.S.may be tinged with official colors.
However, they are basically independent,
and staff members do not depend on taxpayers.More importantly, their credibility is built on a volunteer-based rescue structure.
They are open, transparent, and operate under supervision with constraints.

Chen Haowu suggests that the new Chinese Red Cross can recruit a number of new people.
These can include prestigious sociologists,
jurists, economists, ethicists, and well-known NGO people from China and abroad.
They can form a “China Red Cross Committee”, which can extensively absorb wisdom from those people.
Qiao Mu, Director of International Communication Research Center of Beijing Foreign Studies University, commented.
Internationally, Red Cross is an NGO, yet, in China, staff members are all government officials.

Qiao Mu: “Now, it does not matter that the money comes from the public. It all ends up in the government's account.
You have no idea whether funding comes from the government, or public donations.
Actually, the Chinese Red Cross is only authorizing fund-raising functions to other charitable organizations.
In the end, probably a small portion of donations will go to charity, but a large portion will go to commercial use.
That has been the most criticized issue.”

Qiao Mu believes the Chinese Red Cross' poor image is closely linked to the government's lack of credibility.

Qiao Mu: “Now, they mix official with commercial.

Are you a part of the government or an enterprise? It is not transparent.
They can make an excuse, saying that this is a government action, or public policy,
rather than a charitable or welfare issue.
It is also an identity issue, where someone is
both an athlete, and also the referee in a game.
All charitable organizations, large or small, are
inextricably linked to the Chinese Red Cross.
Therefore, a lot of money from
the public falls into its pocket.”
Qiao Mu also points out that the Chinese Red Cross is out of place, compared with its international counterpart.
The Red Cross in other countries is a private non-profit organization, but in China, it is a government agency.

Chen Haowu wrote in his blog that China is now the only country that is not a member of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
However, others point out that Chen's view is incorrect.

In July 1952, during the 18th International Red Cross Conference, the Chinese Red Cross was confirmed to be a legitimate national Red Cross organization.

It is understood that the International Committee of the Red Cross was
established in February 1863, in Geneva.
It is an international humanitarian organization.

It is an independent, neutral, international agency with the purpose of providing humanitarian protection and assistance to victims of war and armed violence.
Chen Haowu recommends Peng Liyuan, the first lady of China, and Xi Jinping's wife, to lead the Chinese Red Cross.
However, Qiao Mu does not think Peng is the best candidate.

Peng's official background is too obvious. She is not only the first lady, but also part of the military system.
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